There are many types of questions that can be asked in the classroom to foster and build upon student learning. Anita Woolfolk (2013) identifies may types of questioning that can be used in the classroom. The framework of these questions can be categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy of objectives. The types of questions can range from assessing knowledge or comprehensions to evaluation.
Check out this video that talks about how to use effective questioning in the classroom and how to ask good questions.